By John L. Provis, Jannie S. J. van Deventer
This is a cutting-edge record due to the paintings of RILEM Technical Committee 224-AAM within the interval 2007-2013. The document summarises examine thus far within the sector of alkali-activated binders and concretes, with a selected specialize in the subsequent components: binder layout and characterisation, toughness trying out, commercialisation, standardisation, and offering a old context for this rapidly-growing study field.
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Additional info for Alkali Activated Materials: State-of-the-Art Report, RILEM TC 224-AAM
The cost situation with respect to the use of fly ash or metakaolin as the main binder components is likely to be less restrictive, but some of the technical and durability challenges associated with the development of binders based on these materials remain to be overcome in the Chinese context. 7 Development of Alkali-Activated Cements in Western Europe and North America Metallurgical, and particularly blast furnace, slags have long been used as cementitious constituents in concretes in western Europe, with developments in this area dating as far back as at least the 1860–1870s in France and Germany , and 1905 in the USA .
The supply of raw materials is also likely to be an issue in some developed nations, where BFS and fly ash are extensively utilised in blending with Portland cements and are thus not available in sufficient quantities to launch a large industry sector dedicated to the alkaline activation of such materials. Again in these parts of the world, the development of alkali-activated binders based on materials which would not otherwise be utilised, and in particular materials derived from naturally-occurring soils, appears to be a potentially profitable way forward.
Na2Oeq) are sufficiently restrictive . The presence of alkalis in Portland cement, either as a high-alkali clinker or as NaOH in the mix water, has also been shown to influence mechanical, elastic, and various other properties of the resulting concretes in a generally (but not uniformly) deleterious manner, and can reduce shrinkage . The importance of the provision of at least some alkali content has been highlighted in the context of development and retention of pore solution alkalinity , admixture-cement compatibility , and in the role played by alkalis in determining the initial reaction mechanism and hydration products of the silicate [69, 70] and aluminate  phases in the clinker.