By E. Martuscelli, P. Musto, G. Ragosta
This quantity includes ten contributions which jointly supply an account of a few of the ways used to enhance the longevity of polymer matrices. The correlations one of the molecular constitution of the elements, the morphology, and the mechanical houses of mixture platforms are emphasised, as are the tools used to regulate the constitution of those fabrics in the course of processing. a few subject matters, that are essential within the layout and formula of difficult polymer blends, contain the function of the interface in multicomponent platforms, the chemical reactivity of the mix elements, the mode and kingdom of dispersion of the second one section, the crystallinity and crystallization stipulations, and the glass transition temperature. additionally coated is the paintings which all started within the early Nineteen Seventies with the chemical amendment of ethylene-propylene copolymers for use as tougheners of Polyamide-6. Double-spaced. B&w illustrations.
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Extra resources for Advanced Routes for Polymer Toughening
I I 100 150 " I v 0 0 0 60 200 time (rain) Figure 13. -LogO-a) versus time for pure epoxy (curve A) and for the B15 blend (curve B). These curves are shown as dotted lines in Fig. 12. 8 conversion for the epoxy/PC blend. The analysis 32 performed according to eq. (6) (second-order kinetics) did not yield the expected correlation. From the results of the kinetic analysis some conclusions can be drawn: 1. The data seem to indicate that the presence of PC in the system does not alter the overall reaction mechanism of the curing process.
In particular, Figs. 33B and 33C clearly indicate that in this case the crack propagates around, rather than through the epoxy domains. Therefore, yielding of the thermoplastic continuous phase is the main toughening mechanism. At the intermediate compositions (see Figs. 32C, 32D) both the types of failure processes are active. In addition to the above discussed toughening mechanisms, other deformation processes have been proposed to explain the improvement in tougheness for thermoplastic modified epoxies such as crack-pinning [52-54], crack-path deflection , microcracking [56-60] etc.
I' " 10 Blend Composition I' 15 20 PC) Figure 18. Elastic flexural modulus, E, as a function of blend composition. Fracture measurements were also carried out under impact conditions in order to evaluate the toughness of these materials under rapid loading. The Kc and G e values are reported as a function of blend composition in Figs. 19 and 20, respectively. In 38 this case the K e values were obtained as previously, using eq. 7, while the G e values were estimated by energy measurements according to the following equation: U (9) G = BW@ where U is the fracture energy corrected for the kinetic energy contribution, B and W are the thickness and the width of the specimen respectively and ~ is a calibration factor which depends on the length of the notch and the size of the sample.