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By Arthur D. Efland

Contemporary debates at the position of the humanities in American existence has refocused realization on paintings schooling in colleges. during this e-book, the writer places present debate and matters in a well-researched historic point of view. He examines the institutional settings of artwork schooling all through Western heritage, the social forces that experience formed it and the evolution and influence of exchange streams of impression on current perform. The publication treats the visible arts on the subject of advancements ordinarily schooling and specific emphasis is put on the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and at the social context that has affected our idea of artwork this day. The e-book is meant as a major textual content in background of artwork schooling classes, as a supplemental textual content in classes in artwork schooling equipment and background of schooling, and as a source for college students, professors and researchers.

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Gymnastic training had also been subjected to a similar kind of professionalization; athletics was becoming a spectator sport, thus losing much of its original significance as training to infuse the soul with courage (Marrou, 1956). It was not that music and gymnastics had declined as values in Greek life but that they had lost status at media for the education of the young; thus by the time Hellenistic education passed to Rome, they had ceased being important areas in the curriculum. This might explain why there was relatively little discussion of either the visual arts or music in Roman writings concerned with education.

8, cols. 141143). In spite of the fact that patronage in the classical world often reached a grand scale, artists did not enjoy the kind of recognition and esteem that was accorded their counterparts in Renaissance times. Pericles, who ruled Athens when the Acropolis was built, has sometimes been compared with Lorenzo de Medici, a great patron of Renaissance art. Such comparisons are only partially adequate, for Lorenzo did more than commission works; he also encouraged youthful artists to develop their talents (Wittkower & Wittkower, 1963).

David Baker's study of the romantic tendency and Peter Purdue's work on the arts-and-crafts movement helped me to recognize the presence of conflicting tendencies at work in art education. I am also indebted to Stuart Macdonald and Clive Ashwin for their work on English and continental art education, which influenced developments in this country. I need also to acknowledge my intellectual debt to Raymond Callahan for his Education and the Cult of Efficiency, which was an important source for my sixth chapter, and to Lawrence Cremin, whose Transformation of the School was of central importance in shaping my understanding of the educational scene during the interwar era.

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